This is a very useful section of our blog. On this page, we will discuss important aspects of travel from mere bureaucracy to vaccines, from electricity in the world to international telephone codes, from different climates to time zones till different weights and measures in the various countries of this beautiful world!

Bureaucratic organization of a journey

Passport: it must be valid. You can easily find all the necessary informations asking to the Polizia di Stato. If you do not have it yet or you have to renovate it, you will usually receive it in 2 or 3 weeks

Visas. There are many specialized offices that can give you all the necessary informations. Anyway you can directly telephone to the interested Embassy or the Consulate and do everything without any intermediaries.

    Vaccinations. At the Hygiene Office you will find a department assigned just to the  international vaccinations; assigned doctors gives all the necessary informations and  in a short time they make the proper injections.

Money. It is important to go to the bank in advance to be able to order the traveller's cheque. It’s the safest mean to bring your money with you; and don’t make u persuade to use only your credit card by some bank clerk that unable to release them try to persuade you that you don’t need them.

Medical Insurance. Very important.

 

Flight ticket. You can get it in any travel agency. Anyway I always suggest to get an idea before buying it checking on line all the rates, in fact every airways have a its own site by now. There are some site that, requested departures and arrival airports, seek and compare all the airways’ rates.

Have a nice journey!

 

"Before leaving for an international trip (travel, work, study, volunteer, etc.) you need to know your own vaccination status in order to assess a vaccination plan that takes into account not only the staff of the state of general health, also the destination, the type and duration of the trip.

Remember that some diseases, eliminated long time ago in Italy, are, in fact, still endemic or epidemic in some countries.

It 's always advisable before leaving, also, consult your doctor.

The existence of certain conditions, including pregnancy or therapeutic regimens, may, in fact, advise against travel to areas with different environmental and climatic conditions from the usual ones, or contraindicate pharmacological prophylaxis or vaccination. "

 

Malaria
Rabies
Yellow Fever
Hepatitis B
Typhoid Fever
Japanese Encephalitis
Poliomyelitis
Cholera

Diphtheria

Meningitis
Tetanus
   

Malaria

 

There are five types of malaria:

  • Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, infected people still need treatment because their untreated progress can also cause a host of health problems. This type has the widest geographic distribution globally. About 60% of infections in India are due to P. vivax. This parasite has a liver stage and can remain in the body for years without causing sickness. If the patient is not treated, the liver stage may re-activate and cause relapses - malaria attacks - after months, or even years without symptoms.

  • Plasmodium malariae (P. malariae) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, the infected human still needs treatment because no treatment can also lead to a host of health problems. This type of parasite has been known to stay in the blood of some people for several decades.

  • Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, the infected human still needs to be treated because it may progress and cause a host of health problems. This parasite has a liver stage and can remain in the body for years without causing sickness. Without treatment there is a risk that the liver stage re-activates and cause relapses after very long periods without symptoms.

  • Plasmodium falciparum (P. faliparum) - the most serious form of the disease. It is most common in Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Current data indicates that cases are now being reported in areas of the world where this type was thought to have been eradicated.

  • Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) - causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans.
Malaria vaccines are considered amongst the most important modalities for potential prevention of malaria disease and reduction of malaria transmission. Research and development in this field has been an area of intense effort by many groups over the last few decades. Despite this, there is currently no licensed malaria vaccine. Researchers, clinical trialists and vaccine developers have been working on many approaches to bring forward the availability of a malaria vaccine.

 

Yellow Fever

 

It's a viral disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The ‘yellow’ in the name refers to the fact that many patients suffer jaundice, a condition which gives skin a yellow pallor.

Yellow fever high-risk areas are tropical regions of Africa and Latin America. Infection causes a wide spectrum of disease, from mild
symptoms to severe illness and death in up to 50% of patients. No treatment beyond supportive care exists.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 200,000 cases of yellow fever per year, leading to 30,000 deaths, worldwide each year. The number of cases has increased over the past two decades for a variety of reasons, including deforestation, urbanization, population movements and climate change.

Is yellow fever preventable?

Vaccination is recommended by the WHO as a preventive measure for travelers to, and people living in, areas where the disease is common. The vaccine provides immunity within one week for 95% of people who are vaccinated. The organisation says the current vaccine appears to provide protection for 30-35 years or more.

The WHO strongly recommends routine yellow fever vaccination for children in areas at risk for the disease.

 

Typhoid Fever

 

Typhoid fever is a serious disease caused by the bacterium called Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi).

The infection is spread from person-to-person by the fecal-oral route. That means that people get typhoid from food or water contaminated with the feces of infected people.

Typhoid symptoms include high fever, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. Infection can spread to many other places in the body (such as bones) and can cause rupture of the intestine. It kills up to 30% of people who get it, if they are not treated.

Some people who become infected with S. Typhi become chronic carriers—they have no symptoms but have S. Typhiin their feces. Chronic carriers can spread S. Typhi to other people especially when handling food.

Antibiotic therapy reduces deaths and complications caused by typhoid fever. However, in recent years S. Typhi has acquired resistance to many of the antibiotics most widely available for its treatment. Typhoid vaccine can reduce the risk of illness in those who are exposed to S. Typhi.

According to the World Health Organization, 16 million people get typhoid every year around the world and about 600,000 die from the disease.

Typhoid is not common in the United States. Although 356 cases of typhoid fever were reported in the US in 2003, most of these infections are acquired during travel to other parts of the world or by contact with someone who is a carrier—either someone who has recently traveled or is a chronic carrier of S.Typhi.

During the past 15 years, the two typhoid vaccines licensed in the US have been widely used globally. These vaccines have largely replaced the old heat-phenol inactivated whole-cell vaccine in many countries, including the US.

  • An oral live-attenuated strain of S.Typhi—a weakened strain of S. Typhi that is taken by mouth. (Vivotif Berna; Berna Biotech SA).
  • A parenteral capsular polysaccharide vaccine—a piece of the bacterium that is given by injection. (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur)

Polio

 

Polio is caused by intestinal viruses that spread from person to person in stool and saliva. Most people infected with polio (approximately 95%) show no symptoms. Minor symptoms can include sore throat, low-grade fever, nausea, and vomiting. Some infected persons (1 to 2%) will have stiffness in the neck, back, or legs without paralysis. Less than 1% of polio infections (about 1 of every 1,000 cases) cause paralysis. In some cases, the poliovirus will paralyze the muscles used to breathe, leaving the victim unable to breathe on his or her own. Many paralyzed persons recover completely. Those who do recover from paralytic polio may be affected 30 to 40 years later, with muscle pain and progressive weakness.

Before the polio vaccine, 13,000 to 20,000 people were paralyzed by polio, and about 1,000 people died from it each year in the United States. Most of those infected were elementary school children so it was often called ‘infantile paralysis.’

The incidence of paralytic polio peaked in the U.S. in 1952 with 21,000 reported cases and numerous deaths. Following licensure of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine in 1955, the incidence of the disease fell dramatically. The disease was further reduced by the advent of the Sabin (oral) polio vaccine in 1961. The last cases of paralytic polio from natural poliovirus in the U.S. were in 1979, and the most recent case from outside the U.S. occurred in 1993.

Today, polio has been eliminated from the U.S. and the entire Western Hemisphere, although it remains a threat in some countries. The World Health Organization set up an initiative to eradicate polio from the planet by the end of 2005.

The polio vaccine is available as:

  • Polio Vaccine Inactivated (IPV)
  • IPV in combination with DTaP (Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis) and hepatitis B vaccines

Diptheria

 

Diphtheria is a serious disease that can cause death through airway obstruction, heart failure, paralysis of the muscles used for swallowing and pneumonia. It is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which produces toxins that cause cell death both at the site of infection and elsewhere in the body.

Diphtheria usually begins with a sore throat, slight fever, and swollen neck. Most commonly, bacteria multiply in the throat, where a grayish membrane forms. This membrane can choke the person. Sometimes, the membrane forms in the nose, on the skin, or other parts of the body. The bacteria can release a toxin that spreads through the bloodstream and may cause muscle paralysis, heart and kidney failure, and death. Approximately 5% of people who develop diphtheria (500 out of every 10,000) die from the disease and many more suffer permanent damage.

In the 1920s, before the diphtheria vaccine, there were 100,000 to 200,000 reported cases in the United States each year. Because of the high level of immunization, only about one case of diphtheria occurs each year in the United States. However, in areas where the immunization rate has recently fallen (such as Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation), tens of thousands of people are suffering from diphtheria. The bacterium is still here—even though we do not see many cases. Our children are protected by being immunized and by everyone else being immunized too.

The diphtheria toxoid (inactivated toxin) vaccine offers the greatest protection against this disease. The fully immunized person who is exposed can become a carrier of the bacterium but may only develop a mild case, or may not get sick at all. But if not fully vaccinated, the risk of getting severely ill is 30 times higher.

he diphtheria vaccine is available as:

  • DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis vaccine)
  • DTaP in combination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine
  • DTaP in combination with hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccines
  • DTaP in combination with Hib, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccines
  • DT or Td (in combination with tetanus vaccine)
  • Tdap (Tetanus, reduced diphtheria, acellular Pertussis)

Vaccines containing the whole cell pertussis component (DTP) are no longer recommended for use in the United States and are not listed here although they are used in many other countries. Vaccines containing lower amounts of diphtheria toxoid—abbreviated with a small d—are utilized in persons 7 years of age or older.

 

Tetanus

 

Tetanus (Lockjaw) is caused by toxin-producing spores of a bacterium, Clostridium tetani that inhabit the soil and the bowels of animals and humans. Unlike other vaccine-preventable diseases, it is not spread from person to person. Tetanus infection is most often the result of wound contamination in an unimmunized person or someone who has not had vaccine boosters in many years. Tetanus may occur following delivery in the newborn babies of unimmunized women. It may also occur following puncture wounds, animal bites, burns, abrasions and surgery.

The tetanus toxin causes severe muscle contractions, or spasms. Fever, sweating, elevated blood pressure, and rapid heart rate may also occur. Spasms of the vocal cords or the muscles of respiration can interfere with breathing, and pneumonia is common. Contraction of muscles can be so severe that the spine or other bones are fractured.

Between 40-60 cases of tetanus are reported in the United States each year, and 30% of those infected die. Death is more likely in newborn infants of unimmunized mothers and patients over 50 years of age.

The tetanus vaccine is available as:

  • DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis vaccines)
  • DTaP in combination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine
  • DTaP in combination with hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccines
  • DTaP in combination with Hib, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccines
  • Tdap (Tetanus, reduced Diphtheria,, acellular Pertussis vaccines)
  • DT or Td (in combination with Diphtheria vaccine)
  • TT (alone)

Vaccines containing the whole cell pertussis component (DTP) are no longer recommended for use in the United States and are not listed here although they are used in many other countries. Vaccines containing lower amounts of diphtheria toxoid—abbreviated with a small d—are utilized in persons 7 years of age or older. Pertussis component-containing vaccines are not available for children 7-9 years of age.

Rabies

 

Rabies is an acute and deadly disease caused by a viral infection of the central nervous system. The rabies virus is most often spread by a bite and saliva from an infected (rabid) animal (e.g., bats, raccoons, skunks, foxes, ferrets, cats, or dogs). In the United States, rabies is most often associated with bat exposures. However, there have been rare cases in which laboratory workers and explorers in caves inhabited by millions of bats were infected by rabies virus in the air.

Virtually 100% of those infected with rabies who do not receive the vaccine will die. Rabies illness includes rapidly progressing central nervous system symptoms such as anxiety, difficulty swallowing, and seizures.

Although less than ten human rabies fatalities occur in the United States annually, as many as 40,000 Americans receive the vaccine each year after contact with animals suspected of being rabid. An additional 18,000 people get the vaccine before exposure as a preventative measure.

Worldwide, at least 4 million people are vaccinated each year for rabies. The number of deaths that rabies causes each year is estimated to be at least 40,000, and as high as 70,000 if higher case estimates are used for densely populated countries in Africa and Asia where rabies is epidemic. India, with a very large population of stray, ownerless dogs, has about half of all cases of rabies worldwide. Between 30-60% of human rabies cases occur in children under 15 years of age.

Prompt wound care and the administration of rabies immune globulin (RIG) plus vaccine are highly effective in preventing human rabies following exposure.

The rabies vaccine is available as:

  • Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV)
  • Purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV)

Hepatitis B

 

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from one person to another through blood and body fluids, and primarily infects the liver. In the United States, it is most commonly spread through sexual contact or injection drug use. Health care workers and others exposed to infected blood or body fluids are also at high risk for infection. Worldwide, it is most commonly spread to infants by their infected mothers.

he hepatitis B vaccine is available as:

  • HBV Recombinant (alone)
  • HBV in combination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine
  • HBV in combination with DTaP (Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis) and inactivated polio vaccines
  • HBV in combination with hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine

Japanese Encephalitis

 

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease due to a virus similar to the virus that causes yellow fever. It occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the Western Pacific. Only a small fraction of people infected with JEV develop encephalitis but it is estimated that there are 35,000-50,000 cases each year. Of those who develop encephalitis as many as 20-30% will die, and about half (50%) of the survivors will have permanent brain damage. In areas where infection is endemic, almost everyone has been infected by 15 years of age.

JE occurs primarily in rural areas where pigs are intensively raised, particularly in regions with rice production. In vertebrate hosts, like pigs and wading birds, the JE virus is amplified, although the virus does not cause illness in pigs. Pregnant sows that are infected with JE virus, however, often have stillbirths so farmers often immunize their sows. JE virus is spread by infected mosquitoes which breed in pools of water: a single rice paddy, for example, can generate about 30,000 mosquitoes per day.

During the first half of the 20th century, JE occurred primarily in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. Japan has greatly reduced JE as a result of widespread immunization of children and the protection of herds of pigs. Vaccination has also reduced JE in China. In recent decades, however, JE has spread to Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Saipan and Australia. The reasons for the spread are not certain but scientists think it may be due to increased pig farming near rural rice paddies in these areas, or the virus may be spread by migrating birds and wind-blown mosquitoes.

In endemic areas, JE virus infection occurs primarily among children. However, travelers of all ages have become infected with JE virus. The military has estimated that among the unimmunized, between one and two people in 100,000 per week are infected with JE virus. Scandinavian tourists to these regions have been estimated to be infected at a rate of one in 275,000 with half developing encephalitis. The risk for travelers acquiring JE infection depends on the season of travel, destination (rural areas being much higher risk than urban areas), duration of stay, and likelihood of mosquito exposure (dusk and night time are the preferred times for biting mosquitoes).

Cholera

 

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the enterotoxin subunit-A of Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera is a water-borne infection caught through ingestion of faecally contaminated water or shellfish.
Person-to-person spread via the faeco-oral route can also occur.
The incubation period is usually 2-5 days. However, it can sometimes be a few hours.
75% of those infected are asymptomatic.
Cholera is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and food and water hygiene and constitutes a major global public health problem.
Without treatment, severe infection has a mortality rate of 30-50%.
The disease is endemic to parts of Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America.
Large outbreaks are common after natural disasters or in populations displaced by war, where inadequate sewage disposal and contaminated water exist.
An average of only 10 cases of cholera are imported into the UK annually. The most common serotype is V. cholerae El Tor and most infections are acquired on the Indian subcontinent.
The risk of cholera for most travellers to endemic areas is very low.
Cholera vaccine is not licensed for use as an infection control tool in the management of cholera contacts or for prevention of travellers' diarrhoea.The vaccination must not be used as an alternative to standard hygiene precautions, which remain the most effective preventative measures for all food- and water-borne diseases.Immunisation can be considered for the following:Aid workers helping in disaster relief or refugee camps.Backpackers travelling to remote areas where access to medical care is likely to be limited.

Certification of vaccination against cholera is no longer a requirement for entry into any country.

 

Meningitis

 

Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in teens. Meningitis is a dangerous inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord that usually results from viruses or bacteria. Not all types of meningitis can be prevented with vaccines. Fortunately, immunization does protect against four types of meningococcal disease.

Under the Affordable Care Act, many health insurance plans will provide free preventive care services, including checkups, vaccinations and screening tests, to children and teens. 

Why do teens need a meningococcal vaccine?

Of the 1,000- 2,600 people who get meningococcal disease each year, one-third are teens and young adults. Ten percent to 15% of those who get sick with the disease will die, even with antibiotic treatment. Up to 20% will have permanent side effects, such as hearing loss or brain damage. This is why immunization against meningococcal disease so important. It can help prevent this serious disease.

Which meningococcal vaccines are available?

In the U.S., three meningococcal vaccines are available:

  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4), sold as Menomune
  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), sold as Menactra and Menveo

These meningitis vaccines can prevent four types of meningococcal disease, which represents about 70% of the cases in the U.S.

Menactra is the preferred vaccine for people age 9 months to 55 years old and Menveo is approved for those 2 to 55 years old. That's because they provide more lasting protection and decrease carrier rates of meningococcal bacteria, which may help prevent its spread. The doctor or nurse injects one dose into the muscle. If MCV4 is not available, you can use MPSV4. The doctor or nurse injects one dose beneath the skin. Menomune is the only meningococcal vaccine licensed for use in people over 55.

Either vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. The current recommendation for teens is one dose at age 11 and one does at age 16.

Who needs a meningococcal vaccine?

The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:

  • All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
  • Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
  • Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Military recruits
  • People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the first dose of vaccine be given at age 11 or 12 and then a second dose, the booster, should be given between age 16 to 18.   

CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURES
   
A
B
C
D
E
Addis Abeba Ethiopia
17.2
16
17.2
1193
87
Amman Jordan
17.5
7.9
24.5
401
34
Amsterdam Netherlands
9.7
1.5
17.5
765
130
Ankara Turkey
11.7
-0.2
23.2
371
68
Antananarivo Madagascar
18.3
21.3
14.7
1359
154
Antofagasta Chile
16.3
20.6
14
8
0.5
Athens Greece
17.7
10.8
29.4
524
98
Baghdad Iraq
22.4
10.4
35.3
183
24
Bangkok Thailandia
28.1
26
28
1544
125
Barcelona Spain
16.1
9.5
24.5
541
79
Beijing China
11.5
-4.7
25.5
721
43
Beirut Labanon
20
12.4
21.1
501
73
Belgrade Serbia
13
1.6
21.9
492
88
Berlin Germany
9.1
2.3
20.6
503
100
Bern Switzerland
9.1
-
-
1222
-
Bogota Colombia
14.5
14
13.5
986
160
Bombay India
27.1
23.8
27.2
1805
72
Bordeaux France
13.6
-7
34.8
944
164
Brussels Belgium
10.1
2.2
17.8
825
133
Bucarest Romania
12.9
2.8
23.7
489
77
Budapest Ungheria
10.9
-1.5
22
594
94
Buenos Aires Argentina
17.4
23.6
12.7
1432
86
El Cairo Egypt
21.9
13.8
28.6
42
6
Calcutta India
26.3
19.6
28.9
1625
103
Canberra Australia
13.2
20.1
6.3
584
-
Cape Town South Africa
16.5
20.9
12.2
520
97
Caracas Venezuela
20
17.7
20.6
692
100
Dakar Senegal
23.8
21.1
27.3
591
37
Damascus Siria
17.6
7.2
26.7
165
37
Dar Es Salaam Tanzania
25.7
27.8
23.6
1057
63
Darwin Australia
28.1
28.5
25
1487
78
Nuew Delhi India
24.3
14.2
31
660
45
Dhaka Bangladesh
24.1
19.4
28.8
2153
-
Dublin Ireland
10.6
4.5
15.5
728
124
Edinburgh Scotland
8.6
3.1
14.5
673
136
Helsinki Finland
5.5
-0.7
16.2
573
85
Hong Kong China
23
15.8
28.8
2214
-
Jakarta Indonesia
27
21
27
1784
134
Jerusalem Israel
17.6
8.2
22.2
440
43
Kiev Ukraine
7.4
-6.1
20.4
615
115
Kingston Jamaica
26.3
24.8
27.6
786
73
Kinshasa Dem.Rep. of the Congo
24.3
26.5
22
1414
107
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
27.4
28.2
26.9
2443
157
Lagos Nigeria
27
27.2
25
2324
137
Lhasa Tibet
8.1
-1.5
14.2
530
34
Libreville Gabon
26.1
27.1
23.5
2682
84
Lima Peru
19.1
22.5
16
10
2
Lisbon Portugal
17.8
11
22
1042
111
London England
10.7
4.1
17.7
638
117
Luanda Angola
24.6
27
-
522
51
Madrid Spain
15.8
4.5
24
561
87
Manila Philippines
27.1
25.3
27.5
2069
159
Maputo Mozambique
22.7
26.5
19.5
667
105
Mexico Mexico
18.9
28.5
10.4
819
142
Miami USA
23.7
19.2
27.4
1518
107
Milan Italy
13.5
3.3
23.6
783
52
Montevideo Uruguay
16.1
22.7
11
1032
98
Mosca Russia
4.4
-10
17
549
120
Munich Germany
8.1
0.1
19.3
893
128
Nairobi Kenya
17.6
19.5
16.9
930
121
New York USA
12.3
0.1
24.6
1076
94
Nice France
16.1
1.8
32.3
552
80
Oslo Norway
6.1
-2.9
16.4
698
157
Ottawa Canada
-
-10.9
20.7
851
152
Paris France
12.4
-2
31.1
731
167
Prague Czech Rep.
9.9
-1.5
19.4
462
94
Rabat Morocco
16.5
10.7
21.7
728
79
Reykjavik Iceland
5
-0.4
11.2
861
222
Rio de Janeiro Brazil
23.9
26.2
20.3
1420
124
Riyadh Saudi Arabia
24.6
14.4
33.8
81
10
Rome Italy
16.5
10.9
25.5
458
77
San Francisco USA
13.6
10.2
14.7
528
46
Santiago Chile
14.4
21.3
6.9
464
31
Sapporo Japan
9.5
-1.2.
20.2
973
230
Seoul South Korea
11.6
-5.9
25.3
1545
80
Sevilla Spain
19.2
10
28
558
62
Singapore Singapore
28
26.5
28
1942
160
Sofia Bulgaria
10.6
-0.4
21.7
345
83
Stockholm Sweden
7.4
-1.4
21.5
619
104
Sydney Australia
17.3
22.3
11.7
1181
105
Taipei Taiwan
21.5
15.5
28
2090
129
Teheran Iran
17.1
2
29.7
232
40
Tirana Albania
16.2
6.8
25.1
635
-
Tokyo Japan
16.4
6.3
26.7
2042
127
Tunis Tunisia
18.3
10.3
24.7
420
67
Vancouver Canada
10.1
2.4
17.4
1068
161
Vienna Austria
10.4
0.3
22.9
777
179
Vientiane Laos
25.8
21.1
27.2
1715
107
Warsaw Polonia
8.4
0.1
16.8
454
92
Washington USA
13.7
2.7
25.4
1036
96
Wellington New Zeland
12.7
17.3
8.4
1247
183
Yangoon Myanmar
27.5
25.5
27
2653
125
A
Average temperature (year) °C
B
Temperature in January
C
Temperature in July
D
Rainfall (year) m/m
E
Days of rainfall

 

ELECTRICITY IN THE WORLD
(datums subjetcted to changes)

Country

Volt

Freq.

Plug

 

Country

Volt

Freq.

Plug

 

Country

Volt

Freq.

Plug

Afghanistan 

220V

50 HZ

D

 

Finland

230V

50 HZ

C , F

 

Oman

240V

50 HZ

C , G

Albania

220V

50 HZ

C

 

France

230V

50 HZ

C, E , F

 

Honduras

110V

60 HZ

A , B

Algeria

127/220V

50 HZ

C, F

 

Gabon

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Holland

230V

50 HZ

C , F

Angola

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Gambia

220V

50 HZ

G

 

Pakistan

220V

50 HZ

C , D

Anguilla

240V

50 HZ

G

 

Germany

230V

50 HZ

F

 

Panama

110V

60 HZ

A, B , I

Dutch Antilles

127/220V

50 HZ

A, B,  F

 

Ghana

230V

50 HZ

D , G

 

Papua New Guinea

240V

50 HZ

I

Saudi Arab

127/220V

60 HZ

A, B,  G

 

Jamaica

110V

50 HZ

A , B

 

Paraguay

220V

50 HZ

C

Argentina

220V

50 HZ

C , I

 

Japan

110V

50 HZ

A, B

 

Perù

220V

60 HZ

A , C

Aruba

115V

60 HZ

A, B , F

 

Jordan

220V

50 HZ

C, D, F, G , J

 

French Polinesia

127/220V

50 HZ

A, C

Austria

230V

50 HZ

F

 

England

240V

50 HZ

G

 

Poland

220V

50 HZ

C , E

Australia

240V

50 HZ

I

 

Greece

230V

50 HZ

C, D, E, F

 

Portugal

230V

50 HZ

C , F

Bahamas

120V

60 HZ

A , B

 

Grenada

230V

50 HZ

G

 

Puerto Rico

120V

60 HZ

A , B

Bahrain

230V

50 HZ

G

 

Guadalupe

220V

50 HZ

C, D,  E

 

Qatar

240V

50 HZ

D , G

Bangladesh

240V

50 HZ

A, C, D, G , K

 

Guatemala

120V

60 HZ

A, B, G, H, I

 

Romania

220V

50 HZ

C , F

Barbados

115V

50 HZ

A, B

 

Guinea

220V

50 HZ

C, F , K

 

Russia

220V

50 HZ

C , F

Belgium

230V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Guinea-Bissau

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Rwanda

220V

50 HZ

C , J

Belize

110/220V

60 HZ

B , G

 

Guyana

240V

60 HZ

A, B, D ,G

 

Solomone Is.

240V

50 HZ

G, H

Benin

220V

50 HZ

D

 

French Guyana

220V

50 HZ

C, D,  E

 

Samoa

230V

50 HZ

I

Bermuda

120V

60 HZ

A , B

 

Haiti

110V

60 HZ

A , B, H

 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

230V

60 HZ

D , G

Bolivia

220/230V

50 HZ

A , C

 

Hong Kong

220V

50 HZ

D, G

 

St. Lucia 

240V

50 HZ

G

Botswana

231V

50 HZ

D , G

 

Iceland

220V

50 HZ

C , F

 

St. Maarten 

110V

60 HZ

A

Brasile

110/220V

60 HZ

A, B, C

 

India

230V

50 HZ

C , D

 

Senegal

127V

60 HZ

C, D, E, K

Brunei

230V

50 HZ

G

 

Indonesia

127/220V

50 HZ

C, E,  F

 

Seychelles

240V

50 HZ

G

Bulgaria

220V

50 HZ

C, F

 

Iran

220V

50 HZ

 C

 

Sierra Leone

230V

50 HZ

D , G

Burkina Faso

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Iraq

220V

50 HZ

C, D,  G

 

Singapore

230V

50 HZ

G

Burundi

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Ireland (Eire)

230V

50 HZ

G

 

Syiria

220V

50 HZ

C, E,  L

Cambodia

220V

50 HZ

A , C

 

Northern Ireland

 240V

 50 HZ

 

Slovakia

220V

50 HZ

E

Cameroon

220V

50 HZ

C, E

 

Israel

230V

50 HZ

C , H

 

Slovenia

220V

50 HZ

F

Canada

120V

60 HZ

A , B

 

Italy

230V

50 HZ

F , L

 

Somalia

220V

50 HZ

C

Cape Verde

220V

50 HZ

C , F

 

Kenya

240V

50 HZ

D , G

 

Spain

230V

50 HZ

C , F

Central African Rep.

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Kuwait

240V

50 HZ

C , G

 

Sri Lanka

230V

50 HZ

D

Tchad

220V

50HZ

D, E , F

 

Laos

220V

50 HZ

A, B, C, E , F

 

South Africa

230V

50 HZ

M

Czech Rep.

230V

50 HZ

E

 

Lebanon

110/220V

50 HZ

A, B, C, D , G

 

Sudan

240V

50 HZ

C , D

Chile

220V

50 HZ

C , F, L

 

Lesotho

220V

50 HZ

M

 

Suriname

127V

60 HZ

C , F

China

220V

50 HZ

C, D, G, H, I

 

Liberia

120V

60 HZ

A , G

 

Swaziland

230V

50 HZ

M

Cyprus

240V

50 HZ

C , G

 

Libia

127V

50 HZ

D

 

Sweden

230V

50 HZ

C , F

Colombia

110V

60HZ

A , B

 

Luxemburg

230V

50 HZ

C , F

 

Switzerland

230V

50 HZ

C, E , J

Comores

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Macao

220V

50 HZ

C , D

 

Taiwan

110V

60 HZ

A, B,  I

Congo

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Madagascar

110/220V

50 HZ

C, D, E,  J , K

 

Tanzania

230V

50 HZ

D , G

Congo, Rep.Dem.

220V

50 HZ

C , D

 

Malawi

230V

50 HZ

G

 

Thailand

220V

50 HZ

A , C

South Korea

110/220V

60 HZ

A, B, C, D, G

 

Malaysia

240V

50 HZ

G

 

Togo

220V

50 HZ

C

Costa Rica

120V

60 HZ

A , B

 

Maldive

230V

50 HZ

A, D, G, J, K

 

Tonga

240V

50 HZ

I

Ivory Coast

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Mali

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Trinidad & Tobago

115V

60 HZ

B

Croatzia

220V

50HZ

F

 

Malta

240V

50 HZ

G

 

Tunisia

220V

50 HZ

C, E, F, K ,  L

Cuba

110/220V

60HZ

A , C

 

Martinica

220V

50 HZ

C, D,  E

 

Turkey

220V

50 HZ

C , F

Danmark

230V

50 HZ

C , K

 

Mauritania

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Turks & Caicos

110V

60 HZ

A, B

Djibouti

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Mauritius

230V

50 HZ

C , G

 

Tuvalu

240V

50 HZ

G

Dominican Rep.

110V

60 HZ

A

 

Mexico

120V

60 HZ

A

 

Uganda

240V

50 HZ

G

Dominica

230V

50 HZ

D , G

 

Monaco

127/220V

50 HZ

C, D, E , F

 

Hungary

220V

50 HZ

C , F

Ecuador

120/127V

60 HZ

A, B, C, D

 

Morocco

127/220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Uruguay

220V

50 HZ

C, F, I , L

Egypt

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Mozambique

220V

50 HZ

C , F

 

USA

120V

60 HZ

A , B

El Salvador

115V

60 HZ

tutte 

 

Myanmar

230V

50 HZ

C, D,  F

 

Venezuela

120V

60 HZ

A , B

Equatoriale Guinea

220V

50 HZ

C , E

 

Namibia

220V

50 HZ

D

 

Virgin Is.

110V

60 HZ

A , B

United Arab Emirates

220V

50 HZ

C, D , G

 

Nepal

220V

50 HZ

C , D

 

Vietnam

220V

50 HZ

A, C

Eritrea

220V

50 HZ

C

 

Nicaragua

120V

60 HZ

A

 

Yemen 

220/230V

50 HZ

A, D , G

Ethiopia

220V

50 HZ

C, D, J, L

 

Niger

220V

50 HZ

A, B, C, D, E

 

Serbia

220V

50 HZ

F

Faeroe Is.

220V

50 HZ

C , K

 

Nigeria

230V

50 HZ

D , G

 

Zambia

220V

50 HZ

C, D , G

Fiji

240V

50 HZ

I

 

Norway

230V

50 HZ

C , F

 

Zimbabwe

220V

50 HZ

D , G

Philippines

110/220V

60 HZ

A, B, C, E, F

 

New Zealand

240V

50 HZ

I

         

ELECTRICAL ADVICES FOR NOT SKILLED:

 

The first thing that I absolutely suggest to buy is a very useful and cheap kit power point adapters.
Their aim is to adapt the electrical plug of your fixture (phon, videocameras, chargers...) to every kind of power point you will find around the world.
Notice that they only adapt the plug shape but they do not modify their voltage

If voltage is 220V-230V-240V or 250V Italian electrical apparatus works well (so you only need to bring the adapter with you).

If your apparatus works only with Italian voltage :
you need to buy particular kits that have not only adapters but also electrical voltage transformers and you can range voltage from 110-127V to 220V-250V.



Addis Ababa

12.00

Halifax *

08.00

New Delhi

 17.30

Adelaide

20.30

Hanoi

18.00

New Orleans *

06.00

Aden

 14.00

Harare

13.00

New York *

07.00

Algiers

 12.00

L’Habana*

07.00

Odessa *

14.00

Amman *

 14.00

Helsinki *

14.00

Oslo *

 13.00

Amsterdam *

 13.00

Hong Kong

19.00

Ottawa *

07.00

Anadyr *

 00.00

Honolulu

01.00

Paris *

13.00

Anchorage *

 03.00

Houston *

06.00

Perth

 19.00

Ankara *

14.00

Indianapolis *

07.00

Philadelfia *

07.00

Antananarivo

 14.00

Islamabad

16.00

Phoenix

04.00

Asuncion

 07.00

Istanbul *

14.00

Prague *

13.00

Athens *

 14.00

Jakarta

18.00

Reykjavik

11.00

Atlanta *

 07.00

Jerusalem *

14.00

Rio de Janeiro

08.00

Auckland

 23.00

Johannesburg

13.00

Riyadh

14.00

Baghdad *

 15.00

Kabul

15.30

Rome *

13.00

Bangkok

 18.00

Kamchatka *

00.00

San Francisco *

04.00

Barcelona *

13.00

Karachi

16.00

San Juan

07.00

Beijin

 19.00

Kathmandu

16.45

San Salvador

05.00

Beirut *

14.00

Khartoum

14.00

Santiago

07.00

Belgrade *

13.00

Kingston

06.00

Santo Domingo

07.00

Berlin *

13.00

Kiritimati

01.00

Sao Paulo

08.00

Bogota

06.00

Kolkata

16.00

Seattle *

04.00

Boston *

07.00

Kuala Lumpur

 19.00

Seoul

20.00

Brasilia

08.00

Kuwait City

14.00

Shanghai

19.00

Brisbane

21.00

Kiev *

14.00

Singapore

19.00

Bruxelles *

13.00

La Paz

07.00

Sofia *

14.00

Bucharest *

14.00

Lagos

12.00

St. John's *

08.30

Budapest *

13.00

Lahore

16.00

St. Paul *

06.00

Buenos Aires

08.00

Lima

06.00

Stockholm *

13.00

Cairo *

14.00

Lisbon *

12.00

Suva

23.00

Canberra

21.00

London *

12.00

Sydney

22.00

Cape Town

13.00

Los Angeles *

04.00

Taipei

19.00

Caracas

07.00

Madrid *

13.00

Tallinn *

14.00

Casablanca

11.00

Managua

05.00

Tashkent

16.00

Chatham Island

23.45

Manila

19.00

Tegucigalpa

05.00

Chicago *

06.00

Melbourne

21.00

Teheran

15.30

Copenaghen *

13.00

Mexico City *

06.00

Tokyo

20.00

Darwin

20.30

Miami *

07.00

Toronto *

07.00

Denver *

05.00

Minneapolis *

06.00

Vancouver *

04.00

Detroit *

07.00

Minsk *

14.00

Vienna *

13.00

Dacca

17.00

Montevideo

08.00

Vladivostok *

22.00

Dubai

15.00

Montgomery *

06.00

Varsavia *

13.00

Dublin *

12.00

Montreal *

07.00

Washington DC *

07.00

Edmonton *

05.00

Moscow *

15.00

Winnipeg *

 06.00

Frankfurt *

13.00

Mumbai

16.30

Yangon

17.00

Ginevra *

13.00

Nairobi

14.00

Zagreb *

13.00

Guatemala

05.00

Nassau *

07.00

Zurich *

13.00

Current UTC (or GMT/Zulu)-time UTC is Coordinated Universal Time, GMT is Greenwich Mean Time.
Great Britain is one hour ahead of UTC during summer.

Symbols
* means the time shown is adjusted for daylight saving time(DST) or summer time.

Mile
mi

Kilometers
km

1

1,61

2

3,22

3

4,83

4

6,44

5

8,05

10

16,1

20

32,2

30

48,3

40

64,4

50

80,5

Inches
in

Centimeters
cm

Feet
ft

Centimeters
cm

Yardes
ya

Meters
m

1

2,54

1

30,48

1

0,91

2

5,08

2

60,96

2

1,83

5

12,7

5

152,4

5

4,57

10

25,4

10

304,8

10

9,14

25

63,5

25

762

25

22,86

50

127

50

1524

50

45,72

Fahrenheit Temperature (°F)

Celsius Temperature (°C)

Fahrenheit Temperature (°F)

Celsius Temperature (°C)

-4

-20

5

-10

23

-5

32

0

37

+3

41

+5

46

+8

50

+10

55

+13

59

+15

64

+18

68

+20

73

+23

77

+25

82

+28

86

+30

104

+40

140

+60

176

+80

212

+100

 

Pound
lb

kilos
kg

Ounce
oz

Grams
gr

Gallons UK
uk gal

Gallons USA
usa gal

Liters
lt

1

0,45

1

28,3

1

1,2

4,55

2

0,91

5

141,5

2

2,4

9,1

5

2,27

10

283,0

5

6

22,75

10

4,54

20

566,0

8

9,6

36,4

15

6,80

30

849,0

10

12

45,5

30

13,60

50

1415

20

24

91

kilos
kg

Pound
lb

Grams
gr

Ounce
oz

Liters
lt

Gallons
gal

1

2.2046

1

0.00353

1

0.2200

2

4.4092

5

0.00706

2

0.4400

5

11.023

10

0.01765

5

1.1

10

22.046

20

0.0353

8

1.76

15

33.069

30

0.05295

10

2.2

30

66.138

50

0.1059

20

4.4

 
Other measures' unit:
1 Pint UK = 0,57 liters
1 Pint USA = 0,47 liters
1 Liquid Oncia l UK = 28,41 milliliters
1 Liquid Oncia USA = 29,57 milliliters
1 (hundredweight) = 50,8 kg (100 libbre)
1 ton UK = 1,016 ton
1 stone UK = 6,35 kg

 

Afghanistan

0093

Albania

00355

Kiribati

00686

Kuwait

00965

Algeria

00213

Andorra

00376

Laos

00856

Lesotho

00266

Angola

00244

Anguilla

001264

Lettonia

00371

Libano

00961

Antigua e Barbuda

001268

Antille Olandesi

00599

Liberia

00231

Libia

00218

Arabia Saudita

00966

Argentina

0054

Liechtenstein

00423

Lituania

00370

Armenia

00374

Aruba

00297

Lussemburgo

00352

Macedonia

00389

Australia

0061

Austria

0043

Madagascar

00261

Malawi

00265

Azerbaigian

00994

Bahamas

001242

Maldive

00960

Malesia

0060

Bahrein

00973

Bangladesh

00880

Mali

00223

Malta

00356

Barbados

001246

Belgio

0032

Marocco

00212

Martinica

00596

Belize

00501

Benin

00229

Mauritania

00222

Mauritius

00230

Bermuda

001441

Bhutan

00975

Messico

0052

Moldavia

00373

Bielorussia

00375

Bolivia

00591

Monaco

00377

Mongolia

00976

Bosnia Erzegovina

00387

Botswana

00267

Mozambico

00258

Namibia

00264

Brasile

0055

Brunei

00673

Nepal

00977

Nicaragua

00505

Bulgaria

00359

Burkina Faso

00226

Nigeria

00234

Norvegia

0047

Burundi

00257

Cambogia

00855

Nuova Caledonia

00976

Nuova Zelanda

0064

Camerun

00237

Canada

001

Oman

00968

Olanda

0031

Capo Verde

00238

Ciad

00235

Pakistan

0092

Panama

00507

Cile

0056

Cina

0086

Papua Nuova Guinea

00675

Paraguay

00595

Cipro

00357

Colombia

0057

Perù

0051

Polinesia Francese

00689

Comore

00269

Congo

00242

Polonia

0048

Portogallo

00351

Corea del Nord

00850

Corea del Sud

0082

Porto Rico

787 001

Quatar

00974

Costa d'Avorio

00225

Costarica

00506

Rep. Ceca

00420

Rep. Centrafricana

00236

Cuba

0053

Danimarca

0045

Rep Democratica del Congo

00243

Rep. Dominicana

001

Dominica

001767

Ecuador

00593

Romania

0040

Ruanda

00250

Egitto

0020

El Salvador

00503

Russia

007

Saint Elena

00290

Emirati Arabi Uniti

00971

Eritrea

00291

Saint Kitts e Nevis

869 001

Saint Vincent

784 001

Estonia

00372

Etiopia

00251

Samoa Occidentale

00685

Sao Tomè e Principe

00239

Figi

00679

Filippine

0063

Senegal

00221

Seychelles

00248

Finlandia

00358

Francia

0033

Sierra Leone

00232

Singapore

0065

Gabon

007

Gambia

00220

Siria

00963

Slovacchia

00421

Georgia

00995

Germania

0049

Slovenia

00386

Somalia

00252

Ghana

00233

Giamaica

001876

Spagna

0034

Sri Lanka

0094

Giappone

0081

Gibilterra

00350

Sudafrica

0027

Sudan

00249

Gibuti

00253

Giordania

00962

Svezia

0046

Svizzera

0041

Gran Bretagna

0044

Grecia

0030

Swaiziland

00268

Tajikistan

00737

Grenada

473 001

Groenlandia

00299

Taiwan

00886

Tanzania

0066

Guadalupa

00590

Italia

0039

Togo

00228

Tonga

00676

Guatemala

00502

Guinea

00224

Trinidad e Tobago

868 001

Tunisia

00216

Guinea Bissau

00245

Guinea Equatoriale

00240

Turchia

0090

Turkmenistan

00993

Guyana

00592

Guyana Francese

00594

Turks e Caicos

649 001

Tuvalu

00688

Haiti

00509

Honduras

00504

Ucraina

00380

Uganda

00256

Hong Kong

00852

India

0091

Ungheria

0036

Uruguay

00598

Indonesia

0062

Iran

0098

USA

001

Uzbekistan

00998

Iraq

00964

Irlanda

00353

Vanuatu

00678

Venezuela

0058

Islanda

00354

Isole Cayman

345 001

Vietnam

0084

Yemen

00967

Isole Falkland

00500

Isole Marianne

00670

Serbia

00381

Zambia

00260

Isole Marshall

00692

Isole Norfolk

00672

Zimbabwe

00263

 

Isole Salomone

00677

Isole Vergini (US)

001 340

Kenia

00254

   

Israele

00972

Kazakistan

00996

Kirghizstan

00996

   

 

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